What is LTL delivery? FAQs from the Files of East Coast Chair & Barstool

Tractor trailer

Ever wonder how your recently ordered furniture will get to you? Here are some answers to frequently asked questions that we get when it comes to receiving your shipped furniture.

How is my furniture being shipped to me?

LTL delivery is a common way that many furniture suppliers use when shipping furniture to customers. Items are usually put on a wood pallet and secured using plastic straps and/or shrink wrap. LTL delivery is used when items don’t fill the entire truck but are too large or heavy for parcel. With this delivery method, you are paying only for the space that the pieces of furniture take up.

What does LTL stand for?

LTL stands for “less than truckload”.

What determines how much delivery will cost?

To calculate LTL delivery costs, items are put into classes designated by the National Motor Freight Traffic Association (NMFTA). There are 18 classes total. To place an item’s class depends the shipment’s density, stowability, handling, and value. The lower the class, the cheaper it is to ship the item. For example, a steel chair ships at class 250 because they have a high density. Meanwhile, aluminum furniture ships at a class 300 because it takes up more space but has less weight. Other possible costs include fuel surcharges, expedited delivery fees, and where the end destination is located.

What is lift-gate service? Is it included?

A lift-gate raises and lowers items from the back of the truck to the ground. This is not included in the shipping quote are given unless you ask for it. If a truck that delivers your items has a lift-gate and you use it but did not pay for it, you will be charged as if you had requested it.

Will the carrier call me to let me know when my order is being delivered?

For an additional fee, they can call you with a timeframe.

Can I change the shipping address once the item has shipped?

Yes, it is possible to change the shipping address by contacting the carrier. However, a reconsignment fee will be charged.

Will the driver take the items off the truck?

No, we recommend that you have some extra help with you to take items off the truck.

Will the driver take my shipment inside?

No, however, an “inside delivery” option can be added for a fee.

Can I use a forklift to take the items off the truck?

Yes, this could help you get the items off the truck because they’re on pallets. Don’t use forklift on booths or oversized tables, these items are easily damaged.

What do I do if my furniture is damaged?

Regardless of what condition your furniture arrives in, you need to accept the delivery. You will receive a delivery receipt where you can note the damages. From there, you will need to contact our service department about the damages.

For more information on how to accept a tailgate delivery, check out our video below!

5 Common Regrets When Buying Restaurant Furniture

Ladder Back Bar Stools

Besides purchasing or leasing the actual space for your restaurant, buying commercial furniture is another obvious cost that you will have to shell out for. Regardless of the physical size of your business and how many pieces you are buying, ordering furniture is no small undertaking. Whether you are a first-time purchaser or a seasoned restaurant owner of 30 years, there are five regrets you will want to avoid when outfitting your restaurant or bar.

So you didn’t measure your space…

You are buying furniture to fill your space, but not to the brim. Knowing how much space you have to work with allows you to choose the correct amounts and sizes of furniture you need. In the end, inaccurate measurements can cost you some serious cash. If you don’t have enough furniture, you won’t be maximizing your revenue opportunities. From there, if you have to order more, you will not only have to add on the cost of the additional pieces, but also the shipping and handling that comes along with it. It’s simply best to order it right the first time with the most accurate dimensions.

So you didn’t take your customers into account…

Eat'n Park

Eat’n Park Restaurant- Photo via Trip Advisor

When it comes to furnishing your restaurant, knowing your targeted demographic can help you make a decision on what styles to select. Who are your regular customers? For example, if you’re a family-oriented establishment that considers messy toddlers a large portion of your market, you should focus on tables and booths that are easy to wipe down and clean.

Likewise, if your customers are interested in a finer dining setting, look into high back, cushioned chairs in a dark color that make sitting feel exclusive.

Think like your customer when you’re buying your furniture. What would you want to sit on and dine on top of?

Morton's the Steakhouse

Morton’s The Steakhouse- Photo via WeddingWire

 

 

 

 

So you didn’t coordinate with your restaurant’s theme…

Minimalist design, a light green and white color palette, and natural-wooded accents. Would you stuff heavy, dark restaurant booths along the wall? No, because it doesn’t flow with the theme.

Themes tie all the loose décor ends together for a cumulative design scheme that just makes sense. And décor does not stop at wall hangings; it includes your furniture! Coordinating your furniture to go with your theme is vital to completing your restaurant vision.

So you didn’t think about your environment…
It can be expensive to buy restaurant furniture. So when you go about purchasing, you want to make sure durability is a top priority. Wood tables are a popular choice for many restaurants. Despite their versatile look, these table tops can crack or split because of excessive heat, cold, and dryness. Wood tops should be kept at 68°-72°F, with humidity between 40-45%, and proper air circulation to avoid damage. For seaside restaurants, choosing furniture that can endure the heavy beating of salt spray and buildup is crucial. A strong poly lumber will hold up far better than wrought iron. For all-weather outdoor furniture, invest in aluminum or synthetic wicker pieces to be on your patio.Cayman Arm Chairs

When selecting the furniture for your space, keep in mind what goes on outside your restaurant’s window and the amount of maintenance you’re ready to commit to.

So you didn’t think about your restaurant’s strategy…

Are you a sit-down eatery where customers are encouraged to stop and stay awhile? Or are you focused on punctual and speedy service to turn and burn your tables? Whether you’re on either end of the spectrum or somewhere between, your restaurant furniture should reflect this mission. For those slow down bistros, furniture should be geared towards coziness like padded seats and comfy booths. For quicker-paced restaurants, the focus can be on more streamlined, metal pieces with clean lines that communicate a no-nonsense feeling. Your restaurant’s strategy can make a statement through your furniture, so definitely take that into consideration when you order.
Opening or upgrading your restaurant can be a lot of pressure. The best way to avoid regrets when buying your furniture is to take into consideration your space, customers, theme, environment, and strategy. It’s your restaurant, so the creativity is up to you!

Have a regret that we didn’t mention? Let us know in the comments below!

What Your Restaurant Booth Style Says About You

What Your Restaurant Booth Style Says About Your

It is opening night of your new steak restaurant and everything is ready to go. Your entrees are savory and your deserts are delectable. Every piece of furniture is in its place. Staff is fully trained and prepared to take on their first shift at what they hope is the new hot spot in town. The clock strikes and you are officially open for business. A man approaches the door and moves to pull it open, you hold your breath in anticipation of your first customer. That is when you spot them. The flip-flops.

As your eyes begin to take in the whole picture you notice not only is this man wearing flip-flops but swim trunks, a t-shirt, and his hair looks like he just came out of the water. He grabs a menu, takes one look at your prices and heads right for the door. You can hear his flip-flops echo down the sidewalk as he heads to the hot dog shop next door.

As customers begin to trickle in for the dinner rush you start to notice a pattern. Many customers dressed like your first arrival gaze at your pricing and promptly leave. You can’t figure out what is getting lost in translation. Why are people arriving fresh from the beach to dine at your restaurant? Your menu isn’t the problem, but your furniture just might be.

The way a restaurant looks helps to let its potential customers know what to expect when entering. It helps them to determine what kind of food they will be eating, atmosphere, pricing, and even if there is a dress code or not. Sending the wrong message can leave your customers with unfulfilled expectations, and you with bad reviews. Let’s take a moment to consider what your booths are saying about your restaurant and if it is the right message for you.

Color

Retro Booth DesignColor plays a major role in what type of experience potential customers expect from your business. Bright colors paired together communicate a fun vibrant atmosphere perfect for a night out or a casual get together with friends. Darker colors speak of an intimate setting such as a date night or maybe a business meeting. Deeper/darker hues often give a feeling of a more formal establishment that is going to have a higher price point than that of a dollar a slice pizza place.

Consider the clientele that you are hoping to cater to when looking at colors. Opening up a Mexican restaurant looking to specialize in fast service at great prices? Bright colors would be a great way to attract customers trying to grab a quick and affordable lunch before heading back to the office. Blacks, browns, and deep hues work well in upscale bars and restaurants because they feel more traditional of a sit down dinner venue. This lets your customers know that the food might not be best for a quick lunch but better suited for a business lunch.

The only exception to the idea of bright colors communicating a lower price point is a business that serves exclusively breakfast. Touches of bright color to a brunch spot helps to let customers know that you cater exclusively to early morning meals that help start their day off right. It brings to mind the idea of fresh fruits and bright starts. Darker colors in a breakfast establishment communicate more of a budget friendly diner atmosphere.
Comfort

It goes hand in hand that the higher the quality of the materials used to cover the booth, the higher class your establishment will look. The more upscale the appearance, the greater expectation for the quality of the meal, and the more willing customers are to pay higher prices.

Reclaimed Restaurant Booth

Vinyl is the most common material used for restaurant booths. It comes in many colors, is durable and easy to clean, making it a go to option for many owners. The design of your vinyl can be a great indicator to customers what to expect of an establishment. A simple black or red vinyl booth with no piping or pillow top clues customers in to the idea that establishment might be more concerned with quick service at good prices than making it a total dining experience from start to finish. While a booth with a custom fabric pattern with a pillow top and a coat hanger speaks to additional comfort and a business that invested in their appearance, overall atmosphere and comfort level of patrons.

An option other than vinyl is wood. Restaurant booths made of wood are a more expensive option than vinyl but adds a level of durability to the booth, as well as adding a feeling of warmth that wood brings to a design. Stain options run the gambit from very light to black, allowing you to choose the message that you send customers as soon as they walk in the door.

A unique yet popular wood choice is reclaimed wood. This is wood that has been taken from barns and re-purposed to create something new. The look is very popular right now, but especially for booths. It has an earthy feel while still managing a look of sophistication and finesse. The reclaimed look is particularly prominent in craft breweries and bars looking to make a statement about being unique. It lets customers know that that the owners have a lot of pride in their business and have a mind of their own. Their menu offerings and ambiance are going to reflect that individualistic intention.

One way to achieve that upscale design is by integrating texture into your booth materials. Whether it is a physical texture of wood, reclaimed wood, or fabric, that small difference can make a big change in how your business is perceived. Even patterned vinyl can help get the look of adding texture while keeping the comfort and easy cleaning of vinyl.

Privacy

The size of your booth can speak volumes to a customer without ever saying a word. A booth with a 36” back (the shortest available) does not afford the same amount of privacy and intimacy as the same exact booth but with a 54” back (the tallest available). The higher back prevents kids from peeking at other dinners, and helps to dim the conversation from a nearby table, something that dinners who are seeking a special night out appreciate.

The lower back height might be a perfect fit for the local diner looking to provide food that sticks to your ribs at a good price with a decent turnover rate. A higher back booth might be a good fit in a high-end steak restaurant looking to cater to guests looking to dine out for a special occasion and spend some time enjoying the meal and good conversation before leaving. Currently higher backs are trendy. So any business wishing to communicate that to their potential customers might want to consider booths with taller backs.

While booths are only one part of a restaurants design, they are an anchor point visually. It is easy to forget about their importance when building a restaurant’s atmosphere but if done wrong they can ruin the perception that has been so carefully curated throughout the rest of the business.

Appearances aren’t everything, but they do say a lot about your business to first time customers. Color, materials and back height are all clues to lead your customers to a certain conclusion as to what they can expect from your restaurant in terms of food style, pricing, and atmosphere. Be sure to use your booths to project the messages that you wish to say to your customers about what to expect.

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Our Amish-Made Promise

We’ve been in our new office and warehouse since October 1, and our new home gives us more workshop space, allowing us to expand our in-house production. With a team of authentic Amish staff, we’ve been promoting our newest Amish-made outdoor tables, indoor restaurant table tops, and restaurant booths. These are not Amish-inspired or partly Amish-crafted items. We’re proud to say we have some really talented craftsmen on staff, who happen to be Amish and bring their strong work ethic and quality standards to the products they’re producing for customers like you – bars, restaurants, and resorts across the nation.

While the craftsmanship of each item is unique and personal, our in-house production includes processes that help us maintain consistency among all of our products.  So when you order a plank table top today and need another one tomorrow, they’ll match and be of the same high quality.  Yet, if you need something custom-built, our talented staff can adjust the product specifications according to your unique needs.  Now, that’s something you can feel good about!

We feel lucky that our location in Mercer, Pennsylvania, just happens to be near several Amish communities, making it easy to recruit some experienced furniture makers.  But regardless of race, religion, or heritage, every one of our staff carries out our high quality standards – from customer service to warehousing to production.  We are a diverse group of employees, but we all work toward the same goal: making our customers happy.

As we continue to diversify our product lines and offer more made-in-America items, we will continue to focus on quality and offering you products that you’ll be proud to show off in your restaurant, bar, or resort.  And, as always, we will bring you restaurant furniture at low, fair prices.  It’s just the way we want to do business with you.

Amish-Made Restaurant Booths Debut

IN THE NEWS…

Amish-Built Restaurant BoothsEast Coast Chair & Barstool, Inc., the national e-commerce restaurant furniture retailer, announces the addition of a new product line as they launch restaurant booth production at their headquarters in Grove City, Pa. The company has hired on authentic Amish craftsmen to join their staff and hand-craft the restaurant booths, which will both be available in-stock and as custom made-to-order purchases for their customers, who are mostly independent bar and restaurant owners.  This new line of restaurant booths complements the company’s existing lines of restaurant and resort furniture.

“Our quick ship restaurant booths are standard sizes and come upholstered in either black or wine vinyl,” explains owner Dave DiSanti.  “Customers can choose to customize their seating options with wood trim, different upholstery colors, or custom-fit sizes for a little bit of a longer lead time.  We have plans to add more options and other features as we learn what our customers want.”

Currently, the quick ship models are shipping in just 1-2 days.  Featuring a commercial grade, 22-ounce vinyl, the booths are designed with strength in mind and come with a 10-year structural warranty plus 1-year upholstery warranty.  Built with a solid wood construction, heavy duty springs, and welt seams, the booths have foam cushioning which is approved by California Fire Code 117. Restaurant booths are currently selling for as low as $175 for singles and $275 for doubles.

“We never jeopardize quality when we find ways to offer our products for less,” DiSanti says.  “We believe that America’s bar and restaurant owners should have restaurant furniture that looks great, lasts a long time, and is affordable.  I believe in the craftsmanship that our Amish employees bring to the production of these restaurant booths, and I know how lucky we are to be able to find such talent in our honest, hard-working staff.”

East Coast Chair & Barstool recently added booth seating to their three branded e-commerce Web sites and their eBay store.

“A lot of our customers were looking for restaurant booths, and we wanted to be able to meet those needs,” DiSanti says.  “When I looked at the other manufacturers’ products, I knew I could make the booths better and sell them for less.  That’s what our customers deserve.”

Restaurant Booths: What Features Should You Consider?

Buying restaurant booths for your cafe, restaurant, or dining hall can seem complicated at first.  You might be overwhelmed with all the available options or different upholstery choices.  Here, we break down the options and features to make your purchase as simple as possible!

First, let’s talk size.  What size restaurant booth fits your space and style?

Commercial restaurant booth

Standard double restaurant booth features vinyl upholstery.

  • Single v. double:  Do you know the difference between a single and a double?  A single is merely one booth bench – the back is flat and can be placed against a wall if desired.  A double booth has two back-to-back benches.  Double booths can save you money if you are creating back-to-back seating along a wall.
  • Length: A standard booth is 48″ long.  That booth seat length comfortably sits 2-3 people.  A single person booth seat is available for order at 24″ or 36″; these smaller booths are often called deuces, because paired with the opposite bench or a chair, the table configuration seats a total of two people.  Many restaurants mix the standard booths with deuces to create more flexibility in seating and take advantage of space constraints.  Plus, if you have deuces in your restaurant, two-person parties won’t eat up more seats than necessary, and also, deuces tend to produce a quick table turnaround time.  When choosing seating lengths, keep in mind that you need about 20″ per person.
  • Seat depth: Booths tend to be a little roomier for guests than the average restaurant chair, which usually has a 16-17″ seat depth.  Most booths on the market offer an 18″ seat depth, and our booths feature a 19″ seat depth for ultimate comfort.
  • Overall height: The height of booths are measured from the ground to the top of the back – the overall largest height of the booth.  A standard booth tends to be 42-43″ high.  However, shorter booths are available at 36″, and taller booths are also available for order at 48″ high.  When creating your space, height is a critical element.  Do you want to create social flow?  Have windows that you do not want obstructed? Going for an open and airy atmosphere?  If so, you will want to consider the shorter booth height.  But if you are trying to create privacy or a more cozy, intimate seating for your guests, then a taller booth height is ideal.  Consider your brand and the style of your space before choosing the right overall height of your booths.
  • Table size: We recommend pairing a standard 48″ long booth bench with a 30″ X 48″ restaurant table top.  We also recommend using that table with either a booth mounting base or two 5″ X 22″ end bases, however a 24″ disc base or a 30″ X 30″ x-style base could also be used.  Keep in mind that you will want the same length table as your booth bench, so they match up.  If you need help selecting the correct table base, please let us know!

Secondly, let’s consider your upholstery and finish options.

  • Vinyl: Did you know that vinyl is measured by weight in ounces to determine its quality?  The higher the ounce, the better the grade of vinyl, and the more durable it is for commercial uses.  The ounce weight is measured by linear yard.  In addition to ounce weight, manufacturers and vendors of vinyl-made products often introduce a scale to measure their own product qualities.  These scales are not necessarily uniform across the entire industry, so the key factor in comparing vinyls between competitors is looking at the difference in ounces.  Sometimes, you’ll see Grade A, B, C, etc. vinyl, and sometimes, you’ll see Grade 1, 2, 3, etc. vinyl.  Most hospitality industry vinyls are named in the Grade 3-7 range, and higher grades outside that range would be a marine grade vinyl (such as that you’d find in a boat).  A normal ounce weight range would be 22-37 ounces for a standard commercial vinyl.  The better grades of vinyl feature stronger backing to prevent rips and tears.   On our restaurant booths, you can choose a standard 22-ounce vinyl, or select from different vinyl lines which come in higher quality grades.  Most vinyl restaurant booths come with a 1-year warranty on their upholstery.  It’s important to note that the type of stitching and seams used can decrease the amount of wear in certain spots on the booth.  Vinyl can wear over time, and it can even rip and tear.  It’s a great economical choice for your restaurant booths and can be replaced relatively easily.
  • Fabric:  Fabric upholstery on your booths adds more style.  Because fabric comes in a number of patterns and designs, fabric offers many new looks to your restaurant booth.  Sometimes, restaurants can even supply their own fabrics for a custom designed restaurant booth. Fabric tends to ignite a more upscale feeling than vinyl.  Sometimes, booths have vinyl seats but feature a fabric back.
  • Plastic/Laminate:  Economically speaking, a plastic/laminate booth is often the least expensive option.  That’s why they pop up in pizza joints and ice cream shops a lot.  They also have a home in many quick service restaurants, much like your favorite fast food chains.  They are popular at snack bars and in cafeterias.  Offered in very simple designs, there are typically no upholstery or cushion options with a plastic/laminate booth. We currently do not offer a plastic/laminate booth, but we can help you find a vendor if that is the right booth look for you.
  • Wood:  Is your restaurant decor more rustic?  Trying to create a warm, traditional vibe?  Want to add booth seating in a more classical, or even upscale, way?  Wooden restaurant booths might fit your brand the best.  Or, consider adding wood trim to your upholstered booths for a more detailed and finished look.  Once you know wood is going to be visible on your booths, you’ll need to choose what wood species will give you the right look!  Oak, maple, and cherry are popular hardwood finishes for booth construction.  Oak is probably your most traditional wood finish and looks great in country, rustic decors.  Maple offers a lighter, brighter finish, great for contemporary or more spatial, open designs.  Cherry provokes a more upscale or fine dining sense.

Next, let’s look at all the style options.

  • Crumb strip:  Have you ever been part of the waitstaff or a bus team at a restaurant?  Then you know how tricky it can be to really clean off the booth seats, when crumbs fall in the crack between seat and back, especially, when you are standing in the aisle and trying to reach in the back corner to get a good swipe of your rag.  Restaurant staff will love the addition of a crumb strip, which leaves room behind the seat and below the back to wipe out all the crumbs.  Your customers will notice a clean restaurant, and I’m sure your Health Dept. inspector will be impressed, too!  By adding functionality with just a narrow strip on your restaurant booth designed to catch loose crumbs, you can save your staff time and create a cleaner restaurant.
  • Channel design:  The back of a booth can be visually divided with vertical seams to create multiple channels.  We offer a three-channel booth design in our quick ship restaurant booth program.  The most common channel-back designs feature 3, 4, or 6 vertical channels.  However, you can find horizontal channels or even V-back channel designs.  Channels are separated with seams or stitching to provide linear division for aesthetic appeal.
  • Head roll: Many booth sellers create a head roll option.  A head roll is a long horizontal piece that runs at the top of the booth back.  It can either be similar to a cushion or pillow that sticks out further from the back or simply be a change in color, fabric, or pattern than the rest of the booth back to add another type of aesthetic appeal in some designs.  We currently do not offer a standard or quick ship booth with head roll, but we are willing to do custom work and can discuss your head roll needs when building your booths.

Finally, what custom choices do you need in your booth?

Do you have specific needs for your restaurant booth design?  Perhaps, you want a 54″ length to fit larger parties, or you want the booths to be bar height, so you can use your bar height table bases.  What you want and what your space demands matters when you order your restaurant booths.  We are here to help and can most likely match your design needs.  Your satisfaction is important to us.  Our custom-made projects produce some of our favorite items!  We’ll be happy to discuss the options with you.

Did this article help answer your questions about purchasing the right restaurant booth?  Let us know your feedback!

Restaurant Booths: Are they right for your eatery?

“Can we have a booth, please?” If you’ve ever been a host/hostess at a restaurant, you have heard that request more than just once or twice.  Those dining out often prefer sitting at a comfortable restaurant booth.  Here’s why we believe booths fit almost any restaurant seating design:

  • Maximize space. Booth seating which has guests back-to-back requires less space, because you don’t have to allow for the room for guests to pull chairs in or out or walk in between back-to-back chairs.  The overall footprint of a booth tends to be less than a table and chair configuration.
  • Create privacy. There are a lot of reasons people love dining out, but if they sit in a sea of open tables with strangers chomping down their food an arm length’s away, they feel uncomfortable.  Give them the privacy to carry on their own conversations.  Naturally, people like their own personal space, and booths create barriers between tables and the other people in the restaurant.

    Restaurant Booths

    Restaurant booths are preferred among eatery guests.

  • Use a wall – or don’t. Most people think that booths have to be against a wall and tables with chairs are the only seating that can float in the middle of the room.  Not true!  Create a row of booths down the center of a room, or use the finished backs of a line of single booths to create a room divider – and a long aisle of seating.  The design possibilities are really endless, if you are open to trying something a little less traditional in your restaurant design.  However, if you like the look of booths up against a wall, that positioning, of course, works well, too!  Your restaurant layout is up to you!
  • Offer kid-approved seating. When used against a wall, though, booths are proven to be family-friendly, as grown-ups can “trap” their rambunctious youngsters into the booth by sandwiching their tots between them and the wall.  Plus booths allow a little wiggle room, and are usually more comfortable for a child than a traditional chair designed for an adult.
  • Upsell, upsell, upsell. In addition, using a wall to “anchor” a table could increase dollars spent per party.  People who sit at anchored tables, or booths against a wall, tend to feel “out of the way” from your other busy areas and stay longer.  Sales at anchored tables are more likely to include an appetizer and a dessert than free-standing tables near busy areas, like an entrance/exit, a waitress station, the kitchen, or a bus station.
  • Be flexible. A family of five arrives at the busiest dinner time, and you don’t have tables of a 4-seater and a 2-seater available to push together, but you do have an open booth.  Chances are, even if you make it a habit to only seat four people in a booth at a time, that family will be able to squish together their smallest and be just fine.  Because there is no set number of seats in each booth bench, your seating automatically becomes flexible, especially among families with youth.  They may actually prefer the booth, which means you only use one table instead of two.
  • Choose class. Restaurant booths can be very basic or upscale.  They go great in pizzerias and fast food joints, or they can be added as seating at a fine dining restaurant.  Custom designs allow for the right look for your place, so you can make sure they match your atmosphere and meet customer expectations based on your level of quality and service.
  • Choose style. With so many color and style options, matching your restaurant’s decor will be easy!  You may choose an all wooden look, an all vinyl upholstery look, a combination like vinyl seats and a wooden back, or just add some wood trim to your vinyl booth.  Both wooden booths and vinyl booths offer several color options.  Choose your wood finish or your upholstery color to match your other restaurant furniture and overall design.  Restaurant booth styles are truly endless and can also be customized, so find the right one for you!

Most restaurants offer a mix of booths with tables and chairs for a balanced seating solution.  Some also use banquette seating, which places a booth bench on one side of the table and chairs on the opposite side.  Keep your customers in mind, and give them the restaurant seating they prefer.

PS: Your hosts and hostesses love to answer positively when a guest asks about a restaurant booth – trust me! I was in their shoes once.